Metabolite profiling, hypolipidemic, and anti-atherosclerosis activity of mixed vegetable fermentation extract

Rachmawati, Ermin ORCID:, Kinasih, Larasati Sekar, Sargowo, Djanggan, Kinasih, Larasati Sekar, Octaviano, Yudi Her, Mutiah, Roihatul, Ismail, Mahrus ORCID: and Nasih, Ahmad Munjin (2023) Metabolite profiling, hypolipidemic, and anti-atherosclerosis activity of mixed vegetable fermentation extract. Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal. pp. 1-16. ISSN 13190164

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Although positive association between fermented vegetables intake with the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) has increased attention nowadays, the metabolite profiling and the mechanism of action are still elusive. This study designed to investigate the secondary metabolites, hypolipidemic, and anti-atherogenic effect of mixed vegetable fermentation extract (MVFE). The metabolite screening of the MVFE was assessed using the Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrophotometer (LC-MS/MS) method. The result of LC-MS/MS was used as ligands to inhibit the binding of oxidized LDL (oxLDL) and Cluster Differentiation 36 (CD36), Scavenger Receptor A1 (SRA1), Lectin-type oxidized LDL receptor 1 (LOX1). This work was performed with molecular docking using Discovery Studio 2021, PyRx 0.9, and Autodock Vina 4.2 followed by analyzing Network Pharmacology, Protein Protein Interaction (PPI) using Cytoscape 3.9.1 and String 2.0.0. Finally, the clinical effect of MVFE was evaluated using in vivo study. Twenty rabbits were assigned to normal, negative control, and MVFE group that were fed with standard diet, high fat diet (HFD), HFD supplemented with MVFE 100, 200 mg/kg BW, respectively. The serum level of Total Cholesterol (TC) and Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL-c) were detected at the end of week 4. The LC-MS/MS analysis identified 17 compounds categorized as peptides, fatty acids, polysaccharides, nucleoside, flavonoids, flavanols, and phenolic compounds. Based on the docking study, more negative binding affinity was observed in the interaction between metabolites with the scavenger receptors (SR) than simvastatin. The number of nodes and edges based on Network Pharmacology analysis were 268 and 482, respectively. The PPI network showed that MVFE metabolites exerts its athero-protective effect by modulating various cellular processes including inflammation, improvement of endothelial function, and modulation of lipid metabolism. Blood TC and LDL-c concentrations in the negative control (458.82 ± 82.03; 191.87 ± 92.16 mg/dL) were higher significantly compared to the normal group (87.03 ± 29.27; 43.33 ± 5.75 mg/dL). The MVFE administration decreased the TC (100, 200 mg/kg BW MVFE: 269.96 ± 85.34; 130.17 ± 45.02 mg/dL) and LDL-c level (100, 200 mg/kg BW MVFE = 87.24 ± 22.85; 41.82 ± 11.08 mg/dL) dose-dependently (p < 0,001). The secondary metabolites derived from fermented mixed vegetables extract might be developed as a potential strategy to prevent CHD by targeting the multiple pathways in atherosclerosis.

Item Type: Journal Article
Keywords: fermented vegetables; atherosclerosis; molecular docking; LC-MS/MS; network pharmacology
Divisions: Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences > Department of Doctor Profession
Depositing User: dr Ermin rachmawati
Date Deposited: 10 Apr 2023 14:58


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