Perubahan sosial di mintakat penglaju: Dampak penglajuan terhadap perubahan sosial di Bandulan

Rahardjo, Mudjia (1996) Perubahan sosial di mintakat penglaju: Dampak penglajuan terhadap perubahan sosial di Bandulan. Masters thesis, Universitas Muhammadiyah Malang.

[img] Text (Full text)
1415.pdf - Submitted Version

Download (1MB)

Abstract

Menyusul gejala migrasi konvensional yang telah banyak diteliti, belakangan dikenal migrasi sirkuler yang mencakup migrasi harian (menglaju), migrasi musiman (boro) dan migrasi ke luar negeri. Belum banyak penelitian tentang migrasi sirkuler ini. Di antara yang sedikit itu, pusat perhatian masih diberikan pada dampak ekonomisnya daripada dampak sosialnya.

Dengan latar Bandulan yang termasuk mintakat penglaju (commuters' zone) dan proporsi penglajunya cukup besar, penelitian ini berupaya menelusuri: (1) faktor-faktor yang mendorong perilaku dan makna menglaju sebagaimana dihayati oleh para pelakunya, (2) gaya hidup, pola interaksi sosial, solidaritas sosial, dan peran penglaju dalam perubahan sosial, dan (3) akibat-akibat sosial karena perilaku menglaju pada nilai-nilai dan kepercayaan, pranata sosial dan ekonomi, maupun pola pelapisan sosial.

Rancangan kualitatif dipilih untuk menjawab masalah penelitian yang diajukan. Data dikumpulkan melalui pengamatan, wawancara tak terstruktur dan perekaman dokumen. Sumber data dipilih dengan pola bola salju. Data dianalisis secara interaktif dan siklis. Empat teknik analisis data kualitatif, yakni: analisis ranah, analisis taksonomik, analisis komponensial dan analisis tema budaya.

Disimpulkan bahwa secara subyektif, perilaku menglaju di kalangan penduduk asli didorong oleh mitos bahwa Bandulan adalah kampung tukang dan keyakinan bahwa bekerja di kampung sendiri tidak akan berhasil. Secara obyektif, perilaku menglaju penduduk asli didorong oleh keterbatasan sektor pertanian dan industri setempat untuk meningkatkan kesejahteraan, serta keuntungan ekonomi dan sosial kerja di luar Bandulan yang lebih memadai. Menglaju juga dihayati sebagai siasat untuk menghindari kemunduran (involusi) pertanian di Bandulan.

Gaya hidup para penglaju asli Bandulan merupakan campuran gaya warga asli bukan penglaju yang lokalit-tradisional dan pendatang penglaju yang kosmopolit-modern. Dengan kekayaan pengalaman dan ketercukupan ekonomis, para penglaju asli Bandulan mendapat posisi terhormat (kajen). Dengan sikap penuh pengertian, merasa ikut prihatin, dan rasa persaudaraan, para penglaju asli Bandulan mendapat posisi dapat diterima (ketrima). Karena itu, mereka termasuk ke dalam kelompok masyarakat yang terpakai (ketengen). Kedudukan ini menyebabkan peran sosial mereka tidak dapat diabaikan dan menjadi pelopor perubahan sosial di kampungnya.

Kedudukan para penglaju asli yang makin "ketengen" telah mempercepat perubahan sikap hidup yang seperlunya, sesempatnya, semampunya, dan perilaku sewajarnya, semaunya, dan seumumnya yang mempercepat perubahan nilai-nilai dan kepercayaan, pranata sosial dan ekonomi, serta pola pelapisan sosial. Nilai budaya ekonomi, teori dan kuasa makin menguat dan mendesak nilai budaya seni, agama (animisme dan dinamisme) dan solidaritas. Masyarakat Bandulan sedang bergerak dinamis menuju sistem sosial bersendi pertimbangan keuntungan, penalaran, dan kepentingan dengan tatanan masyarakat patembayan. Perilaku menglaju juga mengakibatkan pola mobilitas sosial yang khas, yaitu masuknya individu-individu penglaju yang sebelumnya menduduki derajat sosial rendah ke dalam strata sosial ekonomi yang lebih tinggi, dan turunnya derajat sekelompok individu bukan penglaju, khususnya yang bertahan di sektor pertanian, yang sebelumnya menduduki derajat sosial ekonomi relatif tinggi, ke dalam strata sosial ekonomi yang lebih rendah.

Untuk pengembangan temuan, disarankan agar: (1) mempertimbangkan kedudukan penglaju asli Bandulan yang kajen, ketrima, dan ketengen dalam pemasyarakatan program-program pembangunan yang bersentuhan dengan aspek-aspek sosial-budaya masyarakat sebagai kader-kader pembangunan dan pemberdayaan yang berbasis masyarakat (community based), (2) memberlakukan kebijakan upah pekerja sektor industri menurut tingkat harga yang berlaku agar berdampak pada peningkatan kesejahteraan masyarakat setempat, (3) menfasilitasi penglajuan dengan kebijakan dan penyediaan prasarana-sarana komunikasi dan transportasi yang lancar dan terjangkau, dan (4) mengadaptasikan model pemberdayaan diri yang bersandar pada keyakinan diri dan kesediaan menekuni bidang-bidang kerja non-konvensional (pertanian).

Untuk penelitian lanjutan, disarankan agar memusatkan perhatian pada: (1) kecenderungan kegiatan keagamaan yang makin semarak tetapi berdampingan dengan kegiatan lain yang bertentangan, misalnya berjudi, dan minum minuman keras, dan sejenisnya, dan (2) dampak sosial penglajuan dari desa-desa luar Bandulan, khususnya yang dilakukan oleh kaum wanita pekerja pabrik di Bandulan.

Following the phenomena of conventional migration which have been studied, recently circular migration is known to cover daily migration, seasonal migration, and international migration. Only very few researches on this typical migration have been done. Among these few, focuses are only addressed to the economic impacts rather than social ones.

Taken Bandulan as research setting included as a commuters' zone which has a big number of commuters, this study attempts to find : (1) factors influencing commuting behavior and its meaning as perceived by the actors, (2) life style, patterns of social interaction, social solidarity and the role of commuters in social change, and (3) social consequences due to commuting behavior on values and beliefs, economic and social institutions, and social stratification as well.

A qualitative design is used to answer the problems mentioned. Data were collected through observations, unstructured interviews, and documentation. Data sources were obtained by snow-ball techniques. Data were, then, interactively and cyclically analyzed. There are four techniques of data analysis applied here: domain, taxonomic, componential, and cultural themes analyses.

It is concluded that subjectively, commuting behavior among native people of Bandulan is driven by myth that Bandulan is a village of bricklayers and carpenters, and beliefs that earning a living in their own village will not be beneficial. Objectively, commuting behavior among the native people is forced by the limitation of local agricultural and industrial sectors to promote their welfare, in addition to more economic and social benefits by working outside Bandulan. Commuting is also regarded as tactics to avoid agricultural involution in Bandulan.

The life style of native commuters is a mixture of style of non-commuters who are localite-traditional and non-native commuters who are cosmopolite-modern. Due to their economic superiority and plenty of experiences, they get honorable position in their community. With their feeling of emphaty, concern, and brotherhood, the native commuters are socially and culturally acceptable. They are, therefore, grouped as usable members of society. This position makes their social role unavoidably significant and they become pioneers of social change.

The position of native commuters which becomes more "acceptable" has speeded up the change of life attitude towards necessarily, occasionally, and capably needed, and genuine, free, and common behavior which accelerates the change of values and beliefs, social and economic institutions, and the patterns of social stratification. The cultural value of economy, theory and power becomes stronger, and therefore, weakens the value of art, religion, and solidarity. Bandulan community has is progressing dynamically towards social system based on financial, rational, and vested-interest considerations with gesellschaft order. Commuting behavior also results in typical social mobility, that is the rise of native commuters who were previously in lower stratum to higher one, and the degradation of peasants and farmers into lower level.

It is finally recommended to: (1) consider the position of native commuters who are honorable, acceptable and usable in socializing development ideas dealing with social-cultural aspects of community as the agents of development and community-based empowering strategy, (2) administer wage-policy of industrial labors in accordance with local living cost as to promote their welfare, (3) facilitate commutation with policy and availability of smooth communications and cheap transportation infrastructures, and (4) adapt self-empowering model based on self-confidence and readiness to devote on non-conventional work.

For further research, it is suggested to focus on: (1) the growing tendency of religious activities which are at the same time followed by some activities against the teaching of religion such as gambling, getting drunk and the like, and (2) social impacts of commutation in neighboring villages of Bandulan, especially done by women commuters working in factories in Bandulan.

Item Type: Thesis (Masters)
Subjects: 16 STUDIES IN HUMAN SOCIETY > 1608 Sociology > 160805 Social Change
16 STUDIES IN HUMAN SOCIETY > 1608 Sociology > 160810 Urban Sociology and Community Studies
Divisions: Faculty of Humanities > Department of English Language and Letters
Depositing User: Faizuddin Harliansyah
Date Deposited: 13 Feb 2017 16:13

Downloads

Downloads per month over past year

Origin of downloads

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item